To be able to plan an equalized and stable construction process, the functional areas must be divided into standard space units SSU. Under the defined work sequence these cannot be further subdivided, and can be finished independent of one another. Through division into small spatial units, there is a detailed dataset as a basis for harmonizing performance factors.
For every work package in the work sequence, the process steps involved are identified and the work required is documented. The teams for completing the individual work packages are metaphorically grouped as wagons of a work train passing through the different Takt areas. The generic elements of the macro and micro levels are fit to an individual project. The definition of parameters leads to replicable work packages and early stage planning of material flows and machine use. Using workable backlogs Sepannen ; Hamzeh for non- replicable work packages in prioritized surfaces is also possible.
Knowledge gained and variations at the norm level are directly transferable to the macro level. The generic connection to the macro level remains through the work steps of the process packages. Work steps for Takt areas are taken from the process packages at the norm level. They are planned according to the Takt timeframe within the framework of a collaborative procedure between the project manager and subcontractors.
Managing execution of construction occurs through daily short-cycled Takt status meetings lasting approximately 15 minutes. All site workers thereby meet with the accountable foreman. These meetings are inspired by shopfloor management of the stationary industries Hofacker et al. For purposes of visualization and documentation, information is gathered during status meetings and recorded on a takt control board.
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Secondly the resultant measures to fulfil the requirements of the norm level. The components of the micro and macro levels are project-independent and therefore suited for application to different projects. The three-level method developed here is a flexible system. The knowledge gained at the micro level is automatically transferred to the norm level, and will influence planning in future. By harmonizing workloads, the norm level can react to findings at the micro level. It is compiled during harmonization. They are allocated a performance factor. The building serves as a facility for storing parts, and their assembly into vehicles.
After handover of the building the end-user installed production facilities. The sequencing for the shell construction and milestones of the construction project are shown in Figure 3. By showing the nature and complexity of the process, individual spatial areas within the production hall can be identified and prioritized. Furthermore by arranging the performance factors to the individual process packages, the work sequence was harmonized by balancing the size of teams and machine capacities.
When defining the Takt areas, safety regulations had to be considered meaning that mobile cranes could not be used in adjacent SSUs. In the following harmonization table, the wagons studied are labelled as W1, W2, W3 etc.
Figure 5. One work train was calculated to contain 28 Takt areas. These, and one SSU are shown in Figure 6. Also figure 6 shows the completed Takt plan.
After implementation less Takts were needed after adjusting to the norm level. For example, construction management changed the workload from five to six Y-beams per Takt area. The Takt plan also served as the basis of communication with external partners. The contractors executing construction cooperatively plan these working steps for the applicable Takt from the norm level.
During daily Takt meetings construction progress is documented on the dashboard at micro level RESULTS In the case study using the three-level method generated generic processes, which can be reused in future projects. Moreover the standardization across the three levels results in continuous improvement.
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A side effect was that critical spatial areas such as Area could be handed over earlier as it was prioritized in an early stage of planning see Figure 4. Dividing into three levels showed an improved visualization of the overall construction process. Both decision making for the project team and controlling the construction process were simplified. This meant no delays were recorded.
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Using modular prefabrication, collaboration between PerVille and BMW, as well as Takt planning and Takt Control, allowed the construction time in the case study to be reduced by five months. Based on the results of this paper, the method and its effectiveness should be verified in future construction projects. It is possible to use work sequences at the macro level and performance factors of individual work steps at the micro level in multiple ways.
The norm Takt comprises the total added value of the construction site making them transparent and available to all project participants. Processes are adjusted to a concrete project through the top-down approach of the macro level, and the bottom-up approach of the micro level. Further development of the three-level method would be based on data from various construction projects. These data could be used for deviations from standardizations, which through continuous improvement can generate noticeable efficiencies in construction processes.
Bimmertoday Ehrlenspiel, K. Faloughi, M. Frandson A. Friedrich, T. Hackert, W. Hamzeh, F. Related Papers. By Janosch Dlouhy. By Joanna Kulczycka. By sudhanshu jha.
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Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. The purpose of the analysis is to provide results that are shaped into an action recommendation plan. The results show that creating an online product configurator customer orientation , updating the calculation program process efficiency and creating a consistent offer follow-up system, will provide the highest potential for the process optimization.
Risk management is one of the prominent issues which are pivotal to the success of a business and may adversely affect profitability if not properly practised.
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Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to determine risk management practices in manufacturing SMEs in Cape Town. The research conducted was quantitative in nature and constituted the collection of data from 74 SME leaders, all of whom had to adhere to a list of strict delineation criteria. All data collected were thoroughly analyzed through means of descriptive statistics. It was found that respondents are unaware of the elements which make risk management effective, which ultimately aids to the development of problems for SMEs.
All employees, managers and owners must coordinate their efforts together to identify and manage organizational risks within their ambit to obtain total risk coverage, as well as provide assurance that these risks are effectively managed from a coordinated approach. Further studies may be carried out to identify measures that can be taken to improve the effectiveness of risk management practices in SMEs. As the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia focuses on Vision , there is an immediate need to establish some big manufacturing industries to create jobs and to generate revenue from non-oil sectors.
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Automobile is one such sector where demand is very high in the Kingdom. Local manufacturing can create a lot of jobs and revenue. This study tries to analyze the scope of automobile sector in the Kingdom. The objective here is to identify the functional value of cars, which can be useful for potential automobile manufacturers.