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Unlike many other immigrant communities, North African immigration in California is a complex case of a triangulation between the mother country, the host country, and the country of the ex-colonizer. In many instances, immigrants of Muslim or Jewish cultures become the vectors of French cultural influence in California, such as in the food and hospitality business.

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Research Groups: User is not a member of any group. Lecturers Comparative Literature French and Italian. Education She holds a M. A "prequel" series, La Jeunesse de Blueberry Young Blueberry , and the "intermezzo" series Marshal Blueberry have been published as well, with other artists and writers, most famously William Vance for the latter. Despite dogged efforts on the part of Giraud, the intended Blueberry sequel did not come to fruition for extraneous reasons. A later created prequel series, dealt with Blueberry's early years, during the American Civil War, relating how the racist son of a wealthy plantation owner turned into a Yankee bugler and all the adventures after that.

The material for the first three albums, conceived by the original Blueberry creators, was originally published in the — mass market paperback sized Super Pocket Pilote series, [16] as in total nine page short stories, eight of them constituting one story-arc set in the war.

The very first short story, "Tonnerre sur la sierra" "Thunder on the Sierra" , was actually a post-war stand-alone adventure set before the events depicted in "The Lost Dutchman's Mine". With the exception of the very first and very last, "Double jeu" "Double Cross" , all other shorts were originally published in black and white.

In , Giraud slightly contradicted Charlier's birth account of La Jeunesse by divulging that he had already created the "Tonnerre sur la sierra" story by himself, before Charlier actually came up with the Civil War approach, "It was I who scripted the first episode of La Jeunesse de Blueberry. It very much resembled a regular series episode, but much smaller. Charlier subsequently presented me with another idea: the one concerning the Civil War. I found it an excellent idea; Writing started right away. Giraud created his La Jeunesse art with the smaller digest size format specifically in mind, and adopted therefore a more loose, less "convoluted" art style which allowed him to create his pages more quickly, already applying the revised technique for "Tonnerre sur la sierra".

While the resulting spontaneous art worked out fine for the smaller sized pages of Superpocket Pilote , it did suffer from the enlargement for the hereafter mentioned album releases, when compared to the larger, more detailed pages for the Pilote main series on which he concurrently continued to work. The publication of "La jeunesse de Blueberry" "Blueberry's Secret" in , the first album to collect the first three shorts of the Civil War story-arc, came as a surprise to Blueberry fans.

Having left Blueberry on a cliffhanger with "Angel Face", when Giraud took his extended leave of absence see above , clamor for new Blueberry titles became such, that publisher Dargaud decided to make the move as a temporary stop-gap solution. For the book publication, the original pages were blown up and by Giraud extended in width, [] rearranged, re- colored with some panels omitted in the process to fit the then standard album format of 46 pages, when discounting the two disclaimer pages.

While the removal of individual panels was regrettable from a graphic art point of view — as it, besides the missing art, also broke up the integrity of Giraud's carefully designed page lay-outs, especially in " Mustangs" [] — , it entailed no consequences for the plot of the shorts, save the first one; in "Blueberry's Secret" the in the synopsis mentioned Long Sam had witnessed the murder Blueberry was accused of and therefore able to prove his innocence, but is gunned down before he is able to do so by the real murderer, who in turn is gunned down by Blueberry, leaving Blueberry without any recourse to prove his innocence.

However, for the book publication, the two panels which showed the real murderer being killed were cut, causing a discrepancy as it left readers, unfamiliar with the original publication, wondering why Blueberry was so despondent, as, from their point of view, the real killer was still alive. Unable to resolve the royalties conflict, which had dragged on for five years, Charlier and Giraud turned their back on the parent publisher, leaving for greener pastures elsewhere and taking all of Charlier's co-creations with them.

As the "Thunder on the Sierra" short numbered 14 pages instead of 16, no editorial cutting was necessary for the third book. Apart from the editorial changes to fit the book format and the creation of new covers for the two additional albums, Giraud also made use of the opportunity to recreate a small number of panels to replace those he had felt unhappy about in hindsight, spread over all three albums. Dargaud considered their three, original creator's, La Jeunesse de Blueberry book titles as part of the main series, until they regained the Blueberry rights in late , and as such have therefore seen translations in most of the aforementioned languages as well.

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Apart from the expedited release of the two additional La Jeunesse titles, Dargaud also undertook a subsequent action in an attempt to further profit from the upsurge in popularity of Blueberry , by releasing the very first six-volume Blueberry integral edition of Rombaldi was brought into the fold to act as an intermediary in order to negotiate a separate license from Novedi to have the then four Novedi main series titles included as well in volumes 5 and 6, though Dargaud performed a copyright infraction by making sure Novedi was not mentioned as copyright holder in the respective colophons.

The three La Jeunesse titles were collected in volume 6. The English language edition of these books by Catalan Communications in their "ComCat" line, gave track of the changes and presented the left out panels in editorials in which Giraud himself presented clarifications for the choices made. It was in effect American readership that was first afforded a clarification for the discrepancy in the first book and the editorial changes made, before European readers were, in the editorials by Lofficier of the releases.

Only these first three books were published in English. The three American albums, again translated by the Lofficier couple, were also, unaltered and unedited, included in the above-mentioned anthology collection from Graphitti Designs. The Graphitti Designs "Young Blueberry" anthology title differed from the others in that it was not printed on high gloss paper, but on matte paper as in the original ComCat publications, indicating that by then inclusion in the Graphitti Moebius collection was already accounted for and that the original print run of the interior pages was adjusted accordingly.

It was then that the creators decided to revisit the Young Blueberry adventures as well, which had ended its run in Super Pocket Pilote. However, Giraud was nowhere near able to take on yet another major series himself, as he was still working on his Incal series as Moebius, besides having embarked on Blueberry again. There actually had been an additional, more prosaic reason as well for the decision to do so. After a stay of nearly two years, Giraud moved to the United States in late and set up shop firstly in Santa Monica, and subsequently in Venice and Woodland Hills, California.

Publisher and creators subsequently embarked on a search for a suitable artist to take on the task. Unaware that his work was already brought to the attention of his idol and his co-worker, Corteggiani arranged Wilson's first face-to-face meeting with them in September in Paris.

Much to his own surprise, Wilson was almost immediately asked if he was interested to take on the new Young Blueberry series. The Charlier couple not only helped their friends neither of them French-speaking and staying on a tourist visa in Amsterdam at the time to settle firstly in Brussels, Belgium, and subsequently in the Provence , France, [] but with practical work details as well, as Wilson later recalled, "Janet and I were tremendously lucky, Charlier was in many respects something of a kind uncle to us.

He did not make a fuss about anything. He really stuck out his neck for me by involving me, a virtually unknown young artist, in a success series. I know he could be tough as nails with publishers. We were fortunate though, that he negotiated on our behalf as well, and we profited very much from the deals he struck.

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Wilson became the second, and last Charlier artist, after Giraud, whom the author provided with script pages in a timely fashion, once even receiving a page overnighted from Kuwait where the author then was on documentary assignment, just to keep his artist working. This time around however, and unlike , the rumors found their way to the outside world, causing anxiety in the fan community. The first half-page was accompanied by an editorial from Charlier, in which he tried to allay the fears of the fans see quotebox.

The format was for good measure repeated in with Wilson's second outing, "Terreur sur le Kansas" "Terror over Kansas" , for the same newspaper, but abandoned afterwards when Wilson had become an established Blueberry artist himself. France-Soir saw two half-pages 1b and 2a from "Terreur sur le Kansas" published that were not incorporated in the album, released later that year, for print technical reasons see also The Blueberry biography in this regard.

Despite the initial trepidations of fans, Wilson's Blueberry s were favorably received, achieving print run numbers approximating those of the main series, as well as seeing translations in nearly as many languages, with English being the glaring one of the few exceptions as of The French edition however, sold out in a matter of weeks, and an additional While Wilson was working on "Terreur sur le Kansas", he was asked by Giraud, who had shortly returned to Europe, to finish up on "Le bout de la piste" as well, as he was pressed for time, preparing to leave for California where he just had set up shop.

Wilson did part of the inking of "Le bout de la piste", while his girlfriend Janet Gale, who had followed him from New Zealand, took on the coloring. By the time the "Le raid infernal" was released however, virtually every other country had followed suit due to the demise of the serialized magazine format. Like parent publisher Dargaud, publisher Novedi considered the Young Blueberry books part of the main series at first until , before they were instituted as a separate spin-off series, mostly for the practical reason of wanting to avoid further pollution of release numbering and chronology.

Wilson's "Terreur sur le Kansas" became the first album to be released as a separate La Jeunesse series title in , as indicated on its back cover. It was therefore not Dargaud who took the initiative for the move, but rather Novedi, due to the fact that Dargaud had lost the publishing rights for new Blueberry titles, actually missing out on the first five, most successful, titles of the new series as explained.

But Dargaud did adopt the format, once these rights had returned to them in late Catalan Communications had planned to publish "Missouri Demons", "Terror over Kansas", and beyond in English as well, as additions to their Young Blueberry series in the "ComCat" line from onward alongside Hermann's Comanche Western incidentally, another favorite of Wilson , [] which was already indicated on the back covers of the three original ones published in The former had in effect already received an ISBN number.

Publication came to naught however, due to the near concurrent, but otherwise coincidental, demises of both Novedi and Catalan Communications in late and respectively. Jean-Michel Charlier and Colin Wilson. Corteggiani took a shining on the newcomers and took them under his wing.


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And as already related, it was Corteggiani who, while keeping tabs on the work of his friend, introduced Wilson's work to the Blueberry creators. Actually, he and Wilson had already started their own Thunderhawks comic series before Charlier died, [] an aviation comic set shortly after the first world war in the American South-West, but which had to take a backseat due to the fact that the Blueberry series took precedence.

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Corteggiani's first order of business was to finish up on the script for "Le raid infernal" which was halfway completed by Charlier at the time of his death. This he did to the satisfaction of all parties involved, including Wilson, [] and Corteggiani was retained as the Jeunesse writer ever since. The publication of Wilson's fourth album "La poursuite impitoyable" in was surprisingly still under the Novedi imprint, over a year after the publishing house had ceased to exist.

This can only be explained by the fact that Wilson was originally signed for five albums by Novedi, [] and that the official receivers of the defunct publisher wanted the revenues for the legal and financial finalization of the bankruptcy.


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The album therefore became a posthumous Novedi release. All legal issues were apparently resolved by the time of the publication of the fifth Wilson album, "Trois hommes pour Atlanta" one year later, as it was released by Novedi's successor Alpen Publishers, becoming the only Jeunesse title they were able to release, before they themselves lost publication rights to Dargaud in late No post-original creators editions have seen the day of light in the English language as of , but, like the source series, the Young Blueberry spin-off series did see translations in numerous languages, the three titles by the original creators and the Wilson outings specifically, but appreciatively less so for the subsequent releases.

As of , the spin-off series by Corteggiani and Blanc-Dumont remains only published in French, Spanish, German, Dutch, Danish and Italian, [] a far cry from the nearly two dozen languages the main series had once been published in, or the by Colin Wilson penciled Young Blueberry volumes for that matter. This spin-off series was the second attempt, this time by Alpen Publishers, to further capitalize on the huge popularity both the main, and Wilson's Blueberry series enjoyed at the time.

Written by co-creator Giraud, the series was set around the events depicted in The Lost Dutchman's Mine and dealt with scrupulous gun runners arming Apaches, thereby instigating an uprising.

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Chosen by the publisher for the art work was William Vance, an accomplished Belgian comic artist in his own right and renowned for his XIII comic series. Vance, with whom Giraud had virtually no dealings in person, drew the first two outings in the series, but declined afterwards to continue, partly because he was required to finish an album in only four months in Europe, one year was the typical mean to complete a comic book of 48 pages, but not rarely exceeds this time span in recent decades and that he was unaccustomed to Giraud's style as script writer.

Additionally, even though the first book sold While conceding that he found Vance's particular style "seductive but sometimes artificial" — having been pleased with the first album, but less so with the second — , Giraud himself was disappointed and hurt by the defection of a professional like the established Vance for reasons of aesthetics and integrity, as he wanted the series to be executed by only one artist, deeming the defection "disastrous" for the series.

That Rouge's style resembled that of Giraud, was hardly a surprise, as Rouge was actually not a stranger to Blueberry. At the time it gave rise to the rumor that Giraud was planning to abandon his co-creation and that Rouge was groomed to take over the series. Though a rumor, there was a nuanced morsel of truth in it, as Rouge clarified two decades later, "No, he did not want to abandon Blueberry , but rather sought support and perhaps the opportunity to create books, like the ones he is currently doing [ Mister Blueberry ].

At the time, he was already playing with the notion of doing parallel series. Unfortunately, Rouge was not able to regain the popularity that series once enjoyed, when it was still penciled by Hermann, and the series was suspended indefinitely after Rouge had only added five titles to the series. Originally intended to become a full-fledged series, the three Marshal Blueberry titles have remained the only outings in the series, though they too have seen several foreign language publications.

Although not in France itself, several European countries have seen serialized magazine pre-publication of the first two titles. The third title though, was invariably directly released in book format for virtually all countries. Incidentally, in Giraud returned the favor Vance had provided for his co-creation, when he took on the art work of volume 18 for his XIII series, and which has seen English translations. Jean Giraud and Michel Rouge. A third spin-off series, coined Blueberry , was conceived by original creator Giraud in the earlys, intended as a bonafide sequel series. Set, as the series title already implied, in the era of the William McKinley presidency, it would not only have featured a year old Blueberry, but his adult son as well, albeit in a minor role.

The story line, intended to encompass five books, was to take place around events surrounding the assassination of President McKinley.

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However, Philippe Charlier, son of the late Jean-Michel Charlier and proprietor of "JMC Aventures" — the foundation and legal copyright owner, set up back in with the specific intent to safeguard the creative integrity and legacy of his father, both in a spiritual as well as a commercial sense, but which had become dormant after the failed experiment at Alpen Publishers [66] — , was nowhere near as enthusiastic as Boucq was. He became increasingly alarmed and downright aghast when reading commentaries, Giraud made in contemporary magazine interviews, clarifying his intentions and premises for the proposed series of a Blueberry residing with the Hopi tribe, meditating under the influence of mind-expanding substances, [] while President McKinley was levitating in the White House due to a Hopi spell.

As per a horrified Charlier Jr. It is an effrontery, constructed out of implausible circumstances. Like in the new [ OK Corral ] story cycle, we find a totally passive Blueberry, only meditating, while the president, enchanted by Indians, is levitating in the White House".