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In dominant animal that instinct manifests itself above all in the tendency to optimize the exploitation of the food resources and sex.

In the human people obviously that phenomenon is more complex. As already written before, the author hypothesizes that such megalomaniac traits of personality depend on a hyper-development of that instinct. In facts such megalomaniacs if decide, for example, of political deal lined up in opposition to those in power in local field or even international against the Germans, the Americans, etc. Freud, M. Klein, etc.

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Etiological affective and emotional factors different from these described above anxiety for feelings of inferiority and inner insecurity are acting in neurotics who eagerly criticize or judge others or give lessons on certain aspects of life or of reality and perform, for hyper-compensators unconscious purposes. An high self-esteem and an high mood are useful to all human beings to carry on the struggle for survival.

In those megalomaniacs such functions are hyper-developed and occur with an high self-esteem arising from their feeling of superiority as self-exaltation. Example 5. A policeman worked in a police station that could not fit a known dangerous Sicilian mafia.

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He felt himself superior to his colleagues and not spared criticism even the work of his superiors. To show them that he was able to immediately solve the problem of that mafia phoned and challenged him, at night, in plain clothes, alone, in a public square. The mafia did not turn up and the self-esteem of policeman came out strongly reinforced.

Carlo Tresca

Seventeen years of experience as one of the Expert in Psychology and Criminology of the former Italian Ministry of Justice of the author suggests him that the mafia, probably, did not show up, because he feared that it was a trap agreed with Police Station to frame him or why he thought that if he had killed the policeman he would have finally given the Police a chance to catch him; not certain for a personal afraid of him! After the policeman was transferred and, of course, he thought that the disciplinary action was taken out for envy and hostility to him.

As a result of repeated failures they can destabilize and to encounter transient lowering of mood. In the sudden or numerous successes, they can experience increase of mood without reaching the mania itself. In both cases, after some time, usually, they return within their typical structure of personality. The author think that the hyper-developed instinct of dominance excites psychologically such megalomaniacs and induce in them self-exaltation and feelings of superiority, direct the activity of their brain on the direction of an urgent instinctual satisfaction and decrease, consequently, its rational activity resulting distorted even their potential critical abilities of reality and even their own self-control so that their behaviors result usually, in the long time, dysfunctional to the purpose of survival.

They are not aware of the biologic origin of that process that is ego-syntonic and self-rewarding. They are aware of their behavior disparaging the others and challenging the leaders present in the scene. For some sadistic or sexual aspects of it, too degrading and reprehensible according to common morality, they resort to various defense mechanisms from anxiety already seen before.

Such megalomaniacs when are upset give the image of superiority of himself and remain self-controlled, joking, serene, mature, rational, detached, balanced, top quality or they use slogan or a language persuasive or aggressive or vehement or they are conceited or sarcastic. More than deny their misdeeds, as tend to do the Antisocial, they tend to somehow to rationalize or intellectualize starting always from the assumption that their work was the right.

However, they are not totally inhumane and alienated from the empathetic relations. They can experience feeling of guilt, for example, if they accomplished serious actions against someone who is now dead. All of their human relations are almost never authentic and empathic see Example 2. With regard to their own health they care much more their clothing and their dialectic, for showoff, as a weapon to overpower others, than their mental and physical health, because the latest two activities imply the submission to the knowledge and, therefore, to the power of others doctors, scientists, etc.

The use of various possible psychic defense mechanisms by such megalomaniacs, the denial and projection especially, causes them a partial alienation from reality. It is a vague term that can be used for all psychic disorders, especially for psychoses. In fact, their alienation from reality manifests itself 1 with their beliefs and their attitude of superiority, both subjective and difficult to reduce; 2 with their truths and dogmatic judgments, equally subjective and difficult to come to reality; 3 both with the consequent alteration of their human coexistence Mit-sein ; 4 with a more general alteration of their existence-in-the-world Dasein and 5 with an alteration of their world experience Erlebnis.

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Their ideas and behaviors contrast the common sense or the directives of the scientific communities and they live more or less well integrated into the civilian societies without having to resort to the use of psychotropic drugs, unlike the Psychotic. In those last that happens in distorted, excessive, difficult to correct, repeated, culturally transgressive, verbally or physically aggressive and usually dysfunctional ways as illustrated above.

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They marvel even if others, after being attacked by them, fight back or get offended them on certain topics of discussion or behaviors. That tendency to excel over others common such Megalomaniacs to Narcissist, Antisocials, Mythomaniacs, Histrionics and other psychologically disordered people. Both differ from Psychotics to the fact that those latter are more dominated by their delusions and more alienated from reality and their claims and truths are less connected with the reality. But, at the time, also they resort to the use of alleged participation to fantastic events, for the purpose aforesaid.

Example 6.

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A megalomaniac, after initial free-professional successes that exalted psychologically and realized actually him, had a long period of economic failures and, for a compensatory purposes, already convinced of the existence of UFOs, he began to say to have found it the UFO, at that time, were a subject of great social interest. Example 7. His brother, however, civil servant, womanizer and pathological liar, told the same experiences of encounters with extra-terrestrials, sentimental adventures non-existent and others.

If such megalomaniacs perceive some competitors in the environment tend to annihilate or remove them from their fields of activity revealing antagonism and antipathy that common them to the Opponents-Provocateurs. Example 8. For the same why the Megalomaniacs tend to fight the power-men judges, police, military, religious, teachers and the socio-cultural rules, including the common sense; especially if they associate traits Opponents-Provocateurs.

They are successful in this way in the environments where they are able to achieve what they aspire. Example 9. The author known a Histrionic that performing in certain ways in keeping with the environment of the Lions Club and in completely different ways in very different environments from the first. The Megalomaniacs present some aspects of Antisocial Personality Disorder: both tend to oust all of the former or the powerful the second of their property or of their power.

However, the Megalomaniacs believe that they can do it because they are from part of the reason, the just, the good. The Antisocials tend to have more challenging behavior on the physical plane; the Megalomaniacs, more intellectually or even purely verbal.

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The hyper-development of domain and aggression instincts cause tendencies to manipulate others and the truth, just to reach the aim to dominate and to derive benefits even resulting socio-cultural and sometimes legal conflicts with other people. This author believes that such disorder is to be classified as Personality Disorders. When the mental and behavioral frameworks described before are in young people or adults, in acute ways, or in elderly or old life, in contrasting ways with their previous life stories, you can think that it is the effects of chemical or physical trauma or substances psychic, in the first two cases, or dementia or senile involution, in third case.

Example As already mentioned the author, among his many professional activities, he was one of the Experts in Psychology and Criminology of the Italian State, in Sicily, for the Courts of Appeal of Palermo and Caltanissetta, to relate the Judges Supervisory about the personalities of the detainees who had instances for alternative benefits to the detention. One of them was the son of a mafia boss life imprisoned in another prison who had a thick criminal file, for extortion and that, before entering the Gozzini law into force in Italy, he had also organized riots in jail. He entered in his Office with arrogant ways and sure of himself, looking into his eyes in challenging ways.

He came even to beat his fist on the table of the examiner, so obvious demonstration, and he spoke in a loud voice, so obvious that hear who was crossing out of the office door that he had no awe toward the examiner. He boasted of having the city at his feet after having taken the place of his father: n.

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In the second interview he presented himself in a less defiant way: sometimes he crossed his arms and in other not-knew where to keep it, sometimes he supported the examiner look and sometimes curved, sometimes it was right on his back and other times curved. These behaviors were all unusual for a mafia boss: his body language was saying different things than verbal. The examiner decided then to administer him the Rorschach Test. He gave a more answers than the average of prisoners especially the mafia give very little answers or refuse to submit to the test.

Two were ChoF and three FCho. It was clear for the examiner that there was a contrast between his manifested personality and the occult. During the following talks the examiner tried to get through to them and talk about his life as a child and young. He accepted and since then stopped definitively exhibit the boss style. Later he added that he was very regretted the life he had done until then. The examiner believed him but before to draft a report favorable to the Supervisory Judge he wanted to submit him to another practical test. Accept it only those whose families are in poor economic conditions, in order to earn something to send at home.

The examiner suggested him that job and he accepted it! The other detainees were incredulous: they did not know whether to despise or think that he simulated his changes, in order to have the benefit to which he aspired. Then the examiner had no more doubt and decided to relate favorably to the Judge. The latter, amazement also, rejected the request of the detainee, because the social worker and the internal team of the Prison the Director, the Marshal who cured the order within and the Educator who cared rehabilitative activities related him all negatively.

On the third try the judge decided to trust him and release the detainee granted day. After his release he began self-cleaning work, did not create problems and the black chronicles not occupied anymore. It occupied instead about the Director that, a few years later, committed suicide; the Marshal that, after a few more years, was indicted for criminal association, and the Educator who, after more years, was dismissed for committed other crimes!

Differently than Neuroses and the Psychoses the author hypothesizes that the features mentioned above are primarily due to aggressive and, if necessary, destructive impulses for domain determined by a hyper-developed part also the megalomaniacs women that author known presented psychophysical male characteristics of Neuro-Endocrine System genetically inherited.

Such impulses, not rational nor aware, but fused and confused with rational, conscious and voluntary activity of the cortex, unbalance quantitatively in excess the instinctive survival functions for dominance and qualitatively the reasoning of the Megalomaniacs leading them to dysfunctional ideations and behaviors compared to the original purpose of survival. Obviously, other inherited genes, the individual history, the potential cognitive, environmental and situational factors interact and diversify all them. As the Psychotics the Megalomaniacs, albeit in less heavy ways, often end poor their lives or lives alone, as result of their inability to better manage the money and the interpersonal relations consequent to their disorder.

Other times they taking advantage of the credulity or the rudeness of people attending or the ignorance or the anxiety coming from their urgent needs and they become rich and powerful or are considered saints or benefactors. Other times when clash with certain power-men they can end up exiled or imprisoned or killed. The self-aggrandizement and any tendency to dominate, the instinctive aversion to competitors and the attempts to annihilate them psychologically or even physically, the attempts to impose their system of ideas and interpersonal relationships at the cost of the manipulation the truth, functional to their ambitions, interests and concrete needs, appears to the author similar to that of many animals belonging to the upper steps of Phylogenetic Scale which tend to delimit the areas in which dominate to the fundamental purpose of utilizing the resources available in it, reorder and optimize it, depending on their needs for survival.

The author thinks that the behavioral components bad-working in the Megalomaniacs in the civil society, as well as that of all the Personality Disorders, are the effect of neurological and hormonal abnormalities hyper-inducing instinctive behaviors for domain and control on the environment bad-integrated with the rational activity of their brain.

This contrasts with the request to them to a more appropriate behavior to the dominant culture in their environment and, this is the why, in the course of time, usually, it result dysfunctional to the original survival purpose. Natural phenomena including the humans have more concrete origins than these who often attribute some psychologists and philosophers.

As have noted the psychoanalysts, in the childhood life can act an original narcissistic fixation or strong subjective frustrations of emotional needs of acceptance that determine megalomania. In the adolescence life can act strong offenses of the self-image which can escape again in the neonatal narcissism, by the defense mechanisms of denial and projection, regaining so the reassuring feeling of omnipotence.

As have noted the psychologists it can also happen that some people are induced to do so by threatening and objectives situational factors and, thanks to strengths factors of their personality, they can use the confidence in themselves and in their abilities, to control the anguish and face those factors.

They also found that can act the original relational experiences with caregivers. Even the environments that hyper-gratify the children and adolescents can promote narcissistic detachment as previous hyper-compensation that removes the stains to the original one. The author in his experience has rarely found psychologic factors as in the n. He also noted often familiarity. In the case n. But the superiority and the wickedness that he has exhibited in interpersonal relationships were reactive to situational neurotics and ego-dystonic factors; so much so, after the psychological treatment, he has returned to be the same as before.

It is a largely hypothetic interpretation and it needs to be supported by scientific evidence.